Still Reason to Celebrate America’s Birthday

This 4th of July has every reason to be a not-so-celebrative birthday of our nation. On her last birthday, we could not have imagined the regrettable state of the union on her next. However, as in the birthday of a loved one who is ill, we are not celebrating the present condition, but the birth and life that we love, respect, and remember.

This weekend, let us shift our focus from corona virus, rioting, the economy, and political division to the fundamental goodness of America. This birthday celebrates the founding of the greatest country in the history of mankind based on life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. We are still a people who value life more than any other society in the world despite the tragic abortions and homicides. We still enjoy freedoms almost to a fault despite quarantines and questionable government mandates. We continue to realize happiness in each other and quality of life found nowhere else despite the virus attacks and protests gone amok.

We can survive and thrive on this present journey through a deep dark valley because our forefathers crafted a miraculous declaration of independence followed by a near-perfect constitution 244 years ago. Moreover, because we have a pervasive faith in Almighty God that was the forerunner of our inception four centuries ago, we find the hope and courage to keep charging ahead. We draw strength from our Creator and a history of tenacity and endurance like no other country.

It is critical that we hold a tight grip on our traditional faith and values that guide us through our present troubles. Millions before us paid a high price in blood, sweat, and tears to keep the American dream alive. Any dilution of democratic principle, any acquiescence of liberty, begins a slippery slope toward America’s becoming inconsequential.

This weekend, celebrate not only our nation’s birthday, but also the generations that sacrificially built on that beginning to gift us the greatest country in the history of mankind. It’s future is now on us.

Vote Your World View

Just 19 weeks until the election. If you’re not overly enthusiastic about particular candidates, you don’t need to be. We’re not voting for people; we’re voting for our world view–for what we believe America should pursue and what we should oppose. Let’s consider our choices.

You will be voting for a president and U.S. congressmen as well as state and local leaders. They will span a broad spectrum of desirable and undesirable traits. But each will lead us toward one of two world views that will define the future of our nation. Those world views form the basis for the Republican and Democratic platforms. Particularly as a Christian, you have a critical and weighty choice this November that will impact the rest of your life and future generations. So, it is essential that you not get caught up in candidates, but rather in what those candidates believe and represent. Here are some of the more important elements of the two opposing official platforms–their world views.

  • The Economy
    • Republican: Lower taxes for everyone, wages set by free market, less government regulation, free market capitalism
    • Democrat: Higher taxes for the wealthier, minimum wages set by government, more government regulation, market protectionism
  • Social Ideals
    • Republican: Based on individual rights and justice
    • Democrat: Based on community and social responsibility
  • Military
    • Republican: Increased spending, maintain superiority
    • Democrat: Decreased spending, maintain status quo
  • Sexual Orientation
    • Republican: Oppose gay marriage, two-gender biological sexes
    • Democrat: Support gay marriage, multiple sexes by personal identity
  • Abortion
    • Republican: Should be illegal with some exceptions, oppose Roe v. Wade
    • Democrat: Should remain legal, support Roe v. Wade
  • Healthcare
    • Republican: Private company efficiency and effectiveness, oppose Obamacare,
    • Democrat: Universal government healthcare, support Obamacare
  • Immigration
    • Republican: No amnesty for undocumented immigrants, limitations on immigration, stronger border enforcement
    • Democrat: Support pathway to citizenship for undocumented immigrants, liberal immigration laws, generally open borders
  • International Affairs
    • Republican: America first, cooperation with greater expectation from allies, strong stance against enemies
    • Democrat: World community, cooperation without confronting allies, negotiation with enemies
  • Federalism
    • Republican: States rights as cornerstone of Constitution
    • Democrat: Recognize states rights with strong involvement of federal government
  • Religious Freedom
    • Republican: Strong federal protection of religious rights
    • Democrat: Religious rights limited by civil rights
  • Financial Policy
    • Republican: Balanced budget to reduce debt, reduce government spending
    • Democrat: Reducing debt important, increase government spending
  • Energy
    • Republican: Energy independence, develop all forms of energy, EPA limits
    • Democrat: Significantly reduce fossil fuels, develop renewable energy, increased EPA regulations
  • Gun Control
    • Republican: Uphold Constitutional right to keep and bear arms
    • Democrat: Interpret Constitution to restrict right to keep and bear arms

Although this list is far from an exhaustive account of the party platforms, it should be enough to help you decide how the two parties match up with your world view. Between now and November, try to shift you perspective from candidates, although they are an important consideration, to what kind of nation you want America to be in the coming years and vote accordingly.

SCOTUS LGBTQ Ruling Is Wrong for America

In this week’s bombshell Supreme Court ruling, the justices voted 6-3 to force millions of America’s businesses, organizations, and individuals to accept LGBTQ employees against their moral and biblical convictions. This is wrong on many levels.

The decision, shocking most Americans, applied to three lower court appeal cases, the most notable of which was Harris Funeral Homes v. Aimee Stephens and EEOC. Funeral director, Anthony Stephens, was fired after announcing to his funeral home owners that he was changing his name to Aimee and would be working dressed as a women. The funeral home owners believed the action would cause increased grief for families of departed loved ones who were aware of the situation. The firm also felt such condition would cause undue stress on its other female employees who would have to share restrooms with the biological male. Stephens sued the funeral home.

The ruling according to the majority justices is an interpretation of the 1964 Civil Rights Act which, among other things, prohibited employment discrimination based on gender. At the time, the intention of the Act was clearly about biological males and females. Monday’s decision interpreted the Act as applying to all LGBTQ sexual identities.

About half of all states already have some valid level of non-discrimination protection for LGBTQ communities. But the other half have limited or no such ordinances. On this issue, the states are generally aligned according to political party majority with blue states legislating LGBTQ protection and red states not. The SCOTUS decision no longer leaves the issue up to the states and even usurps the responsibility of the US Congress to enact discrimination law. Most conservatives view this ruling as judicial activism at the highest level. It was a radical rewrite of existing federal statute. It has taken a controversial social issue out of the hands of legislators representing national sentiment and forcing social change by judicial fiat from six individuals.

Although the decision left open the possibility of employers being exempted on religious grounds, there is little doubt but that lower courts will now use this decision to defend LGBTQ persons applying for employment in churches, Christian schools, para-church organizations, and religious related companies. The ruling’s application to only employment issues will not stop it from being influential in backing men attempting to join women’s sport teams as well as men using women’s restrooms and changing facilities. Such a sweeping decision by the Supreme Court has sunken America much deeper into the normalizing of deviate sexual behavior.

Furthermore, traditional conservative Americans guided by Christian principles felt a sense of disappointment and betrayal upon learning that Chief Justice John Roberts and Trump-appointed Justice Neil Gorsuch sided with the liberal justices on this ruling. Gorsuch, usually an unyielding conservative on the Court, even wrote the majority opinion. Justices Kavanaugh, Thomas, and Alito provided the dissenting opinions.

Apparently, conservatives can no longer assume that justices leaning in their direction will vote with conservative ideals. With a 5-4 conservative majority in the Court, one liberal vote by any of the five will swing the decision. This makes it crucial to conservatives that a conservative president and Senate majority be in place when the next Supreme Court seat is vacated.

So, be alert. This ruling has left open all potential for capitalization by the LGBTQ community. Pray that the decision will not embolden those who might want to test the waters in ways that would cause more offense and animosity. What are your thoughts?

Ark Encounter and Creation Museum Reopened!

Americans are more than ready to get out, get away, and experience some “road-trip” freedom again. And there is no better fun destination than the combo Ark Encounter and Creation Museum attractions in northern Kentucky which reopened June 8th.

Two summers ago, my wife, Linda, and I loaded up and drove a full day (600 miles) from Hot Springs, Arkansas, to Florence, Kentucky, just south of Cincinnati, Ohio. My brother, Monty, and his wife, Janis, joined us on the way. It was a comfortable interstate highway journey followed by two days of spectacular entertainment and inspiration. The accommodations in Florence provided a short, easy drive to the Ark Encounter in Williamstown and the Creation Museum in Petersburg.

The genesis (pun intended) of these two attractions was from Answers in Genesis, an organization co-founded by noted historian and entrepreneur, Ken Ham, in 1980 as the Creation Science Foundation. Its name changed to Answers in Genesis (AiG) in 1994. Ken, AiG president, has been a life-long public advocate of the biblical perspective of creation. Through extensive scientific research and in-depth study of the Bible, he has challenged evolutionists with empirical evidence that the biblical “young earth” account of creation is totally compatible with pure science. Co-founder and Chief Communications Officer, Mark Looy, explains that the organization presents the gospel message to hundreds of thousands of people each year through their multifaceted programs and venues.

The Ark Encounter’s life-size replica of Noah’s ark is filled with archaic-like construction that would logically accommodate the massive number of animals on board. Displays explain how the animals were cared for. Figures of Noah and his family interacting with the animals make visitors feel like part of the family. The comprehensive experience flows into the grounds surrounding the ark presenting recreational options and more opportunities for a realistic view of how it all happened.

The Creation Museum reveals the earth’s beginnings based on the infallible Word of God. Visitors experience the truth of our planet’s history as created by the hand of God rather than the faulty reasoning of man. Nearly 150 exhibits demonstrate how the biblical assumptions of creation are scientifically authentic. Adults and children will be fascinated by the animatronic dinosaurs and talking heroes of the faith. The museum also boasts a special effects theater, a state-of-the-art planetarium, a petting zoo, nature trails, and much more.

So, if you’re craving a family-friendly four or five day vacation from the rigors of the last few months, these two educational and inspirational fun spots are great choices. And you can visit them both from one destination. Check them out at http://www.arkencounter.com and http://www.creationmuseum.org.

Which Party Presents the Best Opportunity for African Americans?

President Trump received only eight percent of the African American vote in 2016. Since the 1930s, black voters have cast about 90 percent of their votes for Democrats. Yet the Republican party was founded on anti-slavery and racial equality. Let’s look at what has caused black America to identify as Democrats and why a shift may be on the horizon.

After the Civil War, almost all blacks considered themselves Republicans. The first Republican president, Abraham Lincoln, was followed by 72 years of Republican presidents interrupted by only Cleveland and Wilson. Throughout this period, almost all people of color supported Republicans in national, state, an local elections. Even though blacks won the right to vote shortly after the Civil War with the passing of the 14th and 15th Amendments, most predominantly Democratic southern states continued to prevent black votes through poll taxes, literacy test, and other unfair practices.

It took over 50 years for the voting right of black Americans to be fully realized. During this time, it was Republican presidents and the Republicans in Congress who fought hard against the Democrat party to force all states to comply with all rights of black voters.

Seventy years of mutual loyalty between black citizens and the Republican party began to break down during the “Great Depression” of the 1930s. Democratic president Franklin Roosevelt’s “New Deal” helped minority communities find work. This sector of society hurt worst by the failed economy was persuaded to vote 71% for Roosevelt’s reelection.

When Democratic Vice President Harry Truman finished out Roosevelt’s term after his death, he ordered the military desegregated and ended racial discrimination in federal employment. Black voters overwhelmingly supported Truman’s election to a full term. By then, 56% of African Americans were registered Democrats.

The Kennedy and Johnson years in the White House saw the signing of the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act solidifying 94% of black voter support for Johnson. By 2016, only 8% of African Americans considered themselves Republicans.

So, although the Republican party was the defender of African Americans against Democratic racism for seven decades after the Civil War, the Democrats held the presidency and congressional power during significant political advances for black America over the next half-century. The Republican platform generally supported these advances but didn’t get the credit for them.

The current generation African Americans have lived with the understanding that it’s the Democrats who have their backs. But what has resulted from this affinity? After these latter years of predominant Democratic leadership, median income of black families is $39,715, compared to $65,107 for white families. Family net worth comparison is staggering. Black family net worth is $17,150 compared to white family net worth of $171,000. Because of these disparities, black Americans receive far more government entitlements and assistance than white Americans. Democrats tend to favor these supplementals more than Republicans further enamoring African Americans with the Democrats.

What we have just experienced in the rioting and other chaos from the tragic death of George Floyd is evidence aplenty of the vitriolic state of race relations in America. The pent-up outrage of the under served minority has reached the breaking point. Why wouldn’t this be a catalyst for a shift back to the roots of Republican affiliation for the nation’s black citizens?

If further evidence is needed that African Americans are taken for granted and being paid lip service from Democratic leadership, they need to look no further than Joe Biden’s gaffs that I believe reveal his heart and that of most Democratic politicians. Biden’s “If you have a problem figuring out whether you’re for me or Trump, then you ain’t black” remark should be grounds for every black voter to reconsider supporting him and his party.

What have years of government sustenance and insincerity from the Democrats gained African Americans? The answer is status quo if not decline in economic freedom and social justice. The solution to racial equality is economic, educational, and political opportunity flowing out of a national change of heart. Advances in these areas have been primarily from the heart of Republican leadership.

With this long-standing tradition of black voters feeling more secure in the Democratic camp, it has been difficult for Republicans to convince them that they would benefit long-range and long-term by economic growth, business expansion, and a better job market. President Trump proved that in short order during his first three year in office. The economic boom he led brought record employment and higher wages as well as other increased opportunities for African Americans. After recovery from the pandemic, there is every reason to think that economic boom will continue.

The Democrats realize what this president has accomplished for black America will likely start to swing them back to the Republican party. They are desperately attempting to paint him as a racist who is only concerned about the wealthy. I am hoping that my American friends of color will discern the truth about where their advantage lies for future advancement and opportunity. Over three centuries of racial injustice will not be resolved solely by politics. But resolution will not happen without political involvement. All Republicans should be urging their African American friends to come back to the Grand Old Party of Lincoln.

Don’t Miss the Biggest Space Launch This Week Since the First Moon Landing

With everything else going on in the world, this week’s American space launch with two astronauts aboard a private commercial space ship is a huge historical event that is getting too little attention. Let’s take a moment to soak up what is really happening here.

I was in Air Force pilot training when, on July 16, 1969, Apollo 11 launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, carrying Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to become the first humans to set foot on the moon. Many other breakthroughs in space have flashed across worldwide news media over the 51 years since that phenomenon–Skylab, space shuttle, Mars rover missions, etc. But astronauts Doug Hurley’s and Bob Behnken’s flight to the Skylab this Wednesday crosses a historical threshold considered science fiction until recently.

Elon Musk, a South Africa born American, became a multi-billionaire from his ingenious entrepreneurial adventures with PayPal, Tesla, and other leading edge projects.

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In 2002, he founded SpaceX with the dream of becoming the first commercial transporter of people into the far reaches of space. Since the space race of the early 1960’s, all human space travel has been through the technology and funding of powerful governments, namely the US, Russia, and China. For six decades, the consensus of scientists and governments was to dismiss the idea of privately operated space travel. Meanwhile, Musk has been seriously developing a plan to travel to Mars.

With $100 million of his early fortune, the 49-year old led the SpaceX corporation in designing a family of launch vehicles and the multipurpose spacecraft, Dragon, over a span of seven years. On May 25, 2012, the unmanned Dragon docked with the Skylab in the first of 12 historic supply missions contracted by NASA after the US space shuttle retired in 2011. Space travel had become officially commercialized. However, our American astronauts shuttling to and from Skylab were still hitch-hiking on Russian spacecraft.

This Wednesday, May 27, weather permitting, NASA’s Hurley and Behnken will suit up and strap into Dragon for this unprecedented ride to Skylab. America will be back in the game with over-the-top fanfare. The two crewmen will ride from the remodeled crew quarters to the launch pad not in the typical nondescript government van but in the Elon Musk Tesla Model X electric car. Their space suits will be new one-piece Star-Wars-like fashion statements.

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Expect Musk to milk the significance of this day for all it’s worth.

America owned space travel through the latter half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, we somehow lost our ambition for leadership in the realm of space. America’s astronauts thumbing rides on Russia’s space vehicles has been shameful. In keeping with the American free market spirit, this week will mark the turning point of the reclaiming of our place in space–and rightly through non-government entrepreneurial tenacity. America is back!

Where Does This Magical Stimulus Money Come From?

stimulusmoney

Americans have received over $2 trillion from “the government” with more to come. Since the government doesn’t earn money, but rather just redistributes the people’s earnings, this windfall is taken from somewhere that involves us. How are they doing it, how is it paid back, and what does in mean for you…and your children?

Following what is happening with the federal government’s unprecedented infusion of vast and unimaginable amounts of money into businesses and individuals is like the proverbial herding of cats. It is essentially impossible to understand every aspect of how this works, but the bottom line is we are borrowing from our future selves.

On March 27, 2020, Congress approved the expenditure of $2 trillion for businesses and individuals. Then on April 23, 2020, they passed an additional $484 billion for business and disaster relief. With more on the horizon, we will soon be approaching $3 trillion in government assistance to victims of the pandemic. In fact, Pelosi’s Democrats have just floated a proposal for yet another $3 trillion for states and local governments and another wave of individual payments. Of course, that amount is ludicrous, but a big chunk of it will probably fly. The entire 2020 federal budget is $4.7 trillion, so the stimulus already equates to over half of the annual budget. By the way, the $4.7 trillion budget is supported by only $3.6 trillion in tax revenues resulting in a $1.1 trillion planned budget deficit to be added to our national debt.

Let’s pause here for perspective. Just what does $3 trillion dollars look like? Well, if you stacked $3 trillion in $1.00 bills, it would be over 203,000 miles high or almost to the moon. Laid flat, the stack would circle around the equator 7 1/2 times. If you spent $1.00 per second, it would take you 96,000 years to spend $3 trillion.

So, where is this $3 trillion, and very likely much more, coming from? It’s complicated, but let’s look at it in general terms. The federal government sells government bonds, or IOU’s, to banks which in turn sell them to individual and corporate investors. Since these bonds have the government backing them, along with a reasonable interest rate, there is a decent market for them, especially in these uncertain times. The government will just sell more bonds that they will later have to pay for plus interest.

Now, the question is how does the government pay back the investor in principal and interest that they haven’t budgeted for. Some pundits say the US Treasury will simply print more money. That is not exactly true, although there is some sleight-of-hand here. The Federal Reserve–the government bank–creates digital dollar credits that are as good as cash. These digital dollars will of course ultimately be called for by the bond holders, but, by that time, the government will hope to have enough revenues from taxes and future bond sales to pay the debt. Eventually, any shortfall in revenues to pay off the bonds will be paid by increasing the money supply, or literally printing more money. Unfortunately, printing more money lowers the value of the dollar and hurts the economy.

If you follow this cycle, it becomes obvious that all this stimulus spending will someday come back to haunt us and our future generations. Some of the stimulus money is in the form of loan guarantees that will not have to be spent. But the Congressional Budget Office estimates the bond obligations alone has added over $2 trillion to our national debt which bumped it up to over $25 trillion. Most economists agree that, when any nation’s debt exceeds its GDP–the sum of all annual production or spending in the economy–it should raise all kinds of red flags. Last year’s GDP was $21.7 trillion. Some financial analysts calculate the national debt as $19 trillion, since $6 trillion of it is what the government owes itself. Either way, we must ensure that our long-term position of debt is well below GDP.

I don’t disagree that the stimulus was absolutely necessary to rescue and resuscitate our economy. Perhaps some more is needed. The idiom, drastic times call for  drastic measures, applies here. However, we must be very cautious about future stimulus packages and very conscious of the inevitable payback. I would like to see your thoughts on this.

 

The Unprecedented Melded Families of Eisenhower and Nixon: Where Are They Now?

Eisonhower and Nixon

INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Every blogger who has posted for some years has a few “sugar plum” posts that have been a big hit among his or her readers. I have a few, but one has risen far above any other. This one, from exactly three years ago, was somewhat outside my normal theme but continues to garner readers every day as they discover it in the archives. There has never been a day in three years that my stats didn’t show several views of this post. So, I thought I would re-post it in case you missed it.

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A seemingly nondescript millennial nurse in Ambler, Pennsylvania, has a distinction, shared by his two sisters, unmatched by anyone else in the history of America. He is the grandson and great-grandson of two unrelated U.S. Presidents. He and his two children are in-line descendants of not one, but two of the most powerful men in the history of the world in their day. Yet, Alex Eisenhower, 37, lives a quiet, shift-work life caring for behaviorally challenged children at a psychiatric clinic. Below is a wedding picture of Alex and his bride, Tara, and a recent picture of Alex.

Alexander and Tara Eisenhower's weddingAlexander Eisnehower now

During a visit to the Richard Nixon Presidential Library recently, I was intrigued by this president’s accomplished, but conflicted, presidency. My interest was also stirred by the bond between the Nixon family and the family of the man he served as VP, President Dwight Eisenhower. That bond was forged through an unprecedented marriage. When President Eisenhower’s grandson, David, married President Nixon’s daughter, Julie, in 1968, they started a blood line that would forever bring distinction to their descendants.

Eisenhower Family Tree (2)

As the family tree above shows, the marriage of David Eisenhower and Julie Nixon produce three children, Jennie, Alex (actually Alexander), and Melanie. Melanie just recently married. Christopher Cox is a cousin in their generation from the marriage of President Nixon’s other daughter, Tricia, to Edward Cox.  However, Alex is the only grandchild/great-grandchild of the two presidents who continues the Eisenhower name. His father, David, born in 1948, was in the Navy Reserve and is now a professor of public policy at the University of Pennsylvania. His grandfather, John, born in 1922, was a brigadier general in the Army Reserve, an author, and a political appointee. John died in 2013. Pictured below are David and Julie (left) and John and second wife, Joanne (right).

David and Julie Eisenhower nowJohn and Barbara Eisenhower

President Eisenhower’s son, John, had a successful military and political career, and I believe both David and Alex could have easily lived in the limelight as well. With even average intelligence and reasonable people skills, they could have ridden the heritage of the Eisenhower name into the flag ranks of the military or the top seats in Washington, D.C. Alex, with both presidents in his recent ancestry could have written his own ticket to fame and fortune. Instead, he cares for children whose parents likely don’t even know who he is in Pennsylvania’s Horsham Clinic that few have ever heard of. You know, there is just something really classy about that. If your heart doesn’t match the expectations of  everyone else, follow your heart.

Oh, but remember there is yet another generation. Alex and Tara have two little Eisenhowers–a daughter, Kaia, 10, and a son, Kaeden, 4. Who knows, 30 years from now America might hear the breaking news, “Congressman Kaeden Eisenhower, great-great-grandson of President Dwight Eisenhower and great-grandson of President Richard Nixon, has just announced his candidacy for President. His sister, Kaia Eisenhower, just recently became the youngest general officer in the U.S. Army.”

 

Life Lessons from Geese

geese

Many people consider wild geese as nuisances if not pests. Living in a lake environment, I have become enamored with these water fowls. They can teach us humans a lot. Here are a few interesting and edifying things about geese that put some of us to shame, especially us men.

Several times a day, a monogamous goose couple swoop into our yard and feed on the seeds dropped from our bird feeder by a variety of careless birds. The ritual is always the same. The female–usually the smaller of the two–begins instantly pecking the ground for scattered seeds almost before her wings fold. But Mr. Goose, not so fast. He immediately stretches his neck pivoting his head in every direction looking for potential predators. He continues vigilance until Mrs. Goose has had ample time to feast on the left-over seeds. Then he alternates pecking and checking every few seconds. In the goose world, consistent with most of the animal kingdom, the male naturally assumes the security and protection role. This is a lesson for all of us men, compliments of God.

Did you catch the first sentence of the paragraph above? Geese are monogamous and life-long mates. Two young-adult geese become attracted to each other, and from their first brood, they stay faithful to each other until death. If one becomes sick or injured, the other will not follow their flock in seasonal migration but will stay by the side of their mate. Like every couple should, they share responsibilities. If they migrate each season, the gander decides where they winter in the south, and the goose (female) decides where they nest in the north. When they nest, the husband-goose gathers most of the materials for the nest, and the wife-goose arranges them to her liking. The male does the heavy lifting, while the female does the nurturing. After the eggs are laid, the female sits comfortably on them while the male beds down on the ground at a distance facing the most vulnerable approach. This is a lesson for all of us men, compliments of God.

When the goslings are hatched, the daddy takes on a major role in their development. He always leads the way over land and water to a safe feeding and learning location. If one strays, it is he who goes after the wanderer and herds it back to the gaggle. The gander will not allow his family to socialize with large flocks of other geese which he considers a potential threat until his goslings are almost adults. If a stray gander gets close to his kids, the daddy gander can become vicious toward the intruder. This possessive protectionist character is a threat to any other animal, including humans. Getting between a gander and his goslings is a horrific experience. Fathers, take note. This is a lesson for all of us men, compliments of God.

God gives humans myriad learning examples in his miracles of nature. His avian creation of geese demonstrates a natural behavior expected of His ultimate creation–you and me. What else do you see in geese, particularly the ganders, that is instructive for us?

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